How do I cite and reference a poem?
If you are quoting from a poem, the first thing to consider is where you found the poem. When referencing published poems, please create the reference based on the source where the poem was published (e.g., website, book, video).
The in-text citation of a published poem should include the author’s last name, the year of publication, and stanza (e.g., Frost, 1916, stanza 1).
For information on formatting direct quotes from poetry, please see the Purdue OWL's "Quoting Poetry".
If you attended a live reading of a poem that was not filmed, not transcribed, and not published, it would be considered personal communication because the public is unable to recover the data. If an author read from a book of published poems, please cite the book because the information is retrievable.