How do I reference grey literature, such as a report, in APA style?
Grey literature is self-published and typically comes from government agencies, research institutes, organizations or companies, or associations. This type of literature includes (but is not limited to) the following types of technical or research reports:
- white papers
- working papers
- policy briefs
- reports (Royal Roads University, 2015, What is grey literature?)
For more information, please visit Grey Literature: What Is It?
Please see below for four sample references to reports, and for more information on referencing technical or research reports, including more examples, please refer to pages 205 and 206 in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2010).
Author, A. A. (date). Title of report: Subtitle of report (Report No. xxx). Retrieved from URL
- If the report doesn't have a report number, leave that information out of the reference.
Authored Report from an Agency Website
BC Hydro. (2013). Environmental impact statement executive summary. Retrieved from Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency website: http://www.ceaa-acee.gc.ca/050/documents_staticpost/63919/85328/Executive_Summary.pdf
- “For reports retrieved online, identify the publisher as part of the retrieval statement unless the publisher has been identified as the author: Retrieved from Agency name website: http://www.xxxx” (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 205).
- In-text citation: (BC Hydro, 2013, p. X)
Authored Report from a Governmental Department
Environment Canada. (2011). Best practices for capturing, transporting and caring for relocated Canada geese (Catalogue no.: CW66-293/4-2011E-PDF). Retrieved from http://ec.gc.ca/Publications/0391513D-33B1-4ED7-A8E8-5DA5AE65E767%5CBestPracticesForCapturingTransportingAndCaringForRelocatedCanadaGeese.pdf
- In-text citation: (Environment Canada, 2011, p. X)
Report from a Private Organization, Available on Organization Website (e.g., annual report)
Imperial Oil Limited. (2006). Energy leadership: Yesterday, today and tomorrow. Retrieved from http://www.esso.ca/Canada-English/Files/Investors/2006_AR.pdf
- In-text citation: (Imperial Oil Limited, 2006, p. X)
United Nations Report
United Nations Development Programme. (2014). Human development report 2014: Sustaining human progress: Reducing vulnerabilities and building resilience. Retrieved from http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr14-report-en-1.pdf
- First in-text citation: (United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), 2014, p. X)
- Subsequent in-text citations: (UNDP, 2014, p. X)
American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Royal Roads University. (2015). Grey literature: What is it? Retrieved from http://libguides.royalroads.ca/greylit