Answered By: Jonathan Faerber
Last Updated: Dec 18, 2019     Views: 60582

APA 6th Edition

The APA Style rules encourage authors to place a citation after each instance of paraphrased or quoted information, versus the citation always appearing at the end of a sentence: “If the quotation appears in mid-sentence, end the passage with quotation marks, cite the source in parentheses immediately after the quotation marks, and continue the sentence” (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 171). The same approach would also apply to paraphrased information.

For example:

  1. Smith (2009) noted that this was correct in his study. (Correct format for paraphrasing Smith's results)
  2. Smith (2009) noted that this was correct in his study (p. 23). (Correct format for paraphrasing Smith's results and including the page number in the citation)
  3. Smith noted that this was correct in his study (2009, p. 23). (Incorrect)
  4. The study we have referred to found that "all was correct" (Smith, 2009, p. 23). (Correct)

The order in which you provide the information is up to you, but usually the author's name is provided in the sentence text when it's important to emphasize the author (see examples one and two above), whereas placing the author's name in the citation places the emphasis on the quoted or paraphrased information (see example four above).

Reference

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. 

APA 7th Edition

Citations can appear "within or at the end of a sentence", depending on the placement of a quotation or an author's name (American Psychological Association [APA], 2020, p. 263). Citations for paraphrases typically include both an author name and year in parentheses at the end of the sentence, or the year in parentheses immediately after the author's name within the sentence when the author's name is part of the sentence text (APA, 2020, p. 263). Finally, citations for quotations are included either after the quotation or at the end of the sentence. When the author's name is part of the sentence text, the year will follow the author's name even though the page number or location information for the quotation is placed after the quotation or at the end of the sentence (APA, 2020, p. 271).

For example:

  1. Smith (2009) noted that this was correct in his study. (Correct format for paraphrasing Smith's results)
  2. Smith (2009) noted that this was correct in his study (p. 23). (Correct format for paraphrasing Smith's results and including the page number in the citation)
  3. Smith noted that this was correct in his study (2009, p. 23). (Incorrect)
  4. The study we have referred to found that "all was correct" (Smith, 2009, p. 23). (Correct format for quoting Smith's words)
  5. Smith (2009) found that "all was correct" (p. 23).  (Correct format for quoting Smith's words when the author's name ("Smith") is part of the sentence, which is known as a narrative citation)

The order in which you provide the information is up to you, but usually the author's name is provided in the sentence text when it's important to emphasize the author (see examples one and two above), whereas placing the author's name in the citation places the emphasis on the quoted or paraphrased information (see example four above).

Reference

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000