Answered By: Theresa Bell
Last Updated: Dec 20, 2019     Views: 17116

APA 6th Edition

If “Anonymous” is the identified author of a work (versus there being no stated author), cite “Anonymous” in the citation instead of the author’s last name (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 177). For example, (Anonymous, 2005, p. 42). “Anonymous” would also appear in the author field in the reference list.

If the work does not name an author, you can instead use the first few words of the title (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 176). Enclose the title of an article or chapter in double quotation marks, and italicize the title of all other resource types (p. 176). For example, “quoted text” (Title of Book, year, p. X). The reference list entry is as follows:

Book title. (year). City, State Abbreviation/Country: Publisher.

Please see pages 176-177 in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (American Psychological Association, 2010) for more information.

Reference

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. 

APA 7th Edition

If a document was authored by “Anonymous”, instead of the author’s last name, cite “Anonymous” in the citation (American Psychological Association [APA], 2020, p. 265). For example, (Anonymous, 2015, p. 42). Use “Anonymous” as the author name in the corresponding reference entry as well.

If the work you are referencing does not name an author (which is different than Anonymous being the identified author), use the first few words of the title instead (APA, 2020, p. 264). If the title is not italicized in the references, use double quotation marks around the title in the in-text citation, for example, “quoted text” (“First Few Words”, year, p. X); italicize the title in the in-text citation if it is also italicized in the reference list. Use this title in place of the author name in the corresponding reference entry as well; please see How Do I Reference an Article From a Daily Newspaper in APA Style if There Isn't an Author? for an example reference.

Before using the first few words of the title, check to determine if the resource has a corporate or group author. For example, a report obtained from an organization’s website may not list the specific authors of the text, but if the organization is responsible for or produced the resource, list this organization as the group author. See How Do I Cite a Group Author in APA Style? for more information on formatting in-text citations and reference entries for corporate or group authors.

Reference

 American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000