Answered By: Theresa Bell
Last Updated: Oct 16, 2020     Views: 35331

APA 6th Edition (scroll down for 7th edition)

The sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2010) describes multiple categories of “unpublished work” on pages 211-212, which are listed below along with examples.

The following instructions apply to unpublished and informally published works:

(1) provide the retrieval information or DOI at the end of the work, if available (p. 211);
(2) continue checking your references to see if they have changed status (e.g. progressed from “in progress” to “submitted for publication”) (p. 211);
(3) “for unpublished or informally published works, give the year the work was produced” (p. 185); and
(4) “write in press in parentheses for articles that have been accepted for publication but that have not yet been published” (p. 185).

Please see the following examples for various references to manuscripts at different stages of the publication process:

Unpublished manuscript with a university cited (see p. 211)

Author, A., & Author, B. (year). Title of manuscript. Unpublished manuscript, Department of University, University Name, City, Country.

  • In-text citation: (Author & Author, year, p. X)

Manuscript in progress or submitted for publication (see pp. 211-212)

Author, A. (year). Title of manuscript. Manuscript submitted for publication.

  • “Do not give the name of the journal or publisher to which the manuscript has been submitted” (APA, 2010, p. 212).
  • In-text citation: (Author, year, p. X)

Manuscript accepted for publication posted in preprint archive (see p. 200)

Author, A. (in press). Title of article. Title of Journal. Retrieved from URL

  • “The exact URL is used because the article is informally published and not yet indexed on a journal website. Journal publishers that do not offer advance online publication may allow authors to post a version of their article online ahead of print in an outside repository, also called a preprint archive” (APA, 2010, p. 200)
  • In-text citation: (Author, in press, p. X)

Unpublished raw data from study, untitled work (see p. 212)

Author, A. (year). [Description of data]. Unpublished raw data.

  • In-text citation: (Author, year, p. X)

Informally published or self-archived work (p. 212)

Author, A. (year). Title of work. Retrieved from URL

  • In-text citation: (Author, year, p. X)

Additional Resources

For more information about citing/referencing unpublished works, please visit the APA Style Blog entry entitled “Almost Published.” For more general information about citing academic journal articles, please see the WriteAnswers entries: “How do I reference a journal article that has a DOI in APA Style?” and “How do I reference a journal article in APA Style (no DOI)?.”

Reference

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

APA 7th Edition

When working with online resources, it’s best to work with the final, published work (American Psychological Association [APA], 2020, p. 258), but you may find yourself using an advance online version. Cite the version you used, so if that was the advance online version, cite that work. Similarly, if you worked with a pre-print, which is “the final peer-reviewed manuscript as accepted for publication [that] might be available from a variety of places, including a personal website, an employer’s server, an institutional repository, a reference manager, or an author social network” (APA, 2020, p. 258), cite that version.

Please see the information and specific examples provided in the APA Style manual for references to advance online and in press journal articles (p. 318), unpublished manuscripts and manuscripts submitted for publication (p. 336), informally published works (p. 337), and unpublished raw data (p. 338). For general examples, see below for references to manuscripts at different stages of the publication process:

Unpublished manuscript (see p. 336)

Author, A. (year). Title of manuscript [Unpublished manuscript]. University Department, University Name.

  • "Include the department and institution where the work was produced, if possible” (APA, 2020, p. 336).

Manuscript submitted for publication (see pp. 336-337)

Author, A. (year). Title of manuscript [Manuscript submitted for publication]. University Department, University Name.

  • “Do not list the name of the journal to which the work was submitted. Once the manuscript has been accepted for publication, cite it as an in-press article” (APA, 2020, p. 337).
  • “A manuscript submitted for publication is not available to the public. If the manuscript is available online, treat it as informally published” (APA, 2020, p. 337).
  • In-text citation: (Author, year, p. X)

Journal article, in press (see p. 318)

Author, A. (in press). Title of article. Title of Journal.

  • In-text citation: (Author, in press, p. X)

Journal article, advance online publication (see p. 318)

Author, A., & Author, B. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/xxx

  • In-text citation: (Author & Author, year, p. X)

Informally published work from a preprint archive or institutional repository (see p. 337)

Author, A. (year). Title of article. Publisher. URL

  • In-text citation: (Author, year, p. X)

Unpublished raw data (see p. 338)

Author, A. (year). [Unpublished raw data on description of data]. University Name.

Author, A. (year). Title of data set [Unpublished raw data].

  • In-text citation: (Author, year, p. X)

Reference

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000