Answered By: Jonathan Faerber
Last Updated: Dec 18, 2019     Views: 15376

APA 6th Edition

When referencing books and reports (non-periodicals), “give the location (city and state or, if outside the United States, city and country) where the publisher is located as noted on the title page” (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 186). Abbreviate American states and territories to their two-letter form; click here to be taken to the United States Postal Service's official list of state abbreviations. For publisher locations outside the United States, do not abbreviate the location; instead, "spell out the city and the country names" (p. 187). If two or more locations are provided, note the first location in your reference list (p. 187), and “use a colon after the location” (p. 187).

When providing the publisher name, be as brief as possible: “Write out the names of associations, corporations, and university presses, but omit superfluous terms, such as Publishers, Co., and Inc…. Retain the words Books and Press” (American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 187).

Please see pages 186-187 in the APA manual for more detailed information about presenting publication information.


American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. 

APA 7th Edition

Include publisher information for print material such as books and book chapters, and digital material including data sets, and computer software and mobile apps (American Psychological Association [APA], 2020, p. 295). When referencing print books and reports, provide the publisher name as briefly as possible, without the publication location or superfluous terms or designations of business structure, such as “Co.”, “Ltd.”, “Inc.”, but “do not abbreviate the publisher name unless it is shown in abbreviated form on the work” (APA, 2020, p. 296). Do not note the publisher’s location in electronic resources; instead, provide the electronic retrieval details for the resource, such as a DOI or URL.

Occasionally, reference entries for works with specific locations, such as conference materials, will include the location in the source element. In this case, "provide the city; state, province, or territory as applicable; and country" and "use the two-letter postal code abbreviations for U.S. states and the analogous abbreviations (if any) for states, provinces, or territories in other countries" (APA, 2020, p.297). The United States Postal Service's official list of state abbreviations can be found here


American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).