Answered By: Jonathan Faerber (he/him/his)
Last Updated: Nov 02, 2021     Views: 17253

APA Style (7th ed.)

It depends on how you accessed the data; for example, if you retrieved the information from a journal article, book, web page, or a Statistics Canada publication, please use the appropriate formatting. To cite and reference data from a data set, please include the author and publication year in in-text citations and references include the words "data set" in square brackets after the title of the data set:

Author, A. (Year). Title of data set in sentence case and italics [Data set]. Publisher. DOI or URL

Just as with journal articles and other electronic resources without a DOI, do not include the DOI if you accessed the resource through a subscription-based database. For information and examples of data sets, please see pages 337-338 of the APA Style manual. 

If you are citing data within a table - that is, you've created a table and retrieved the data within the table from various sources - please identify the sources of your information in the table note and include the resources in your references e.g. Data are from Smith, Brown, and West (1996), Winslow and Johnson (2014), and Yu et al. (2003). Use superscripted letters in the table data and with the corresponding mentions in the table note to make the connections: Data are from Smith, Brown, and West (1996)a, Winslow and Johnson (2014)b, and Yu et al. (2003)c. Please include the resources in your references, but you don’t need to include the superscripted letters in the references as those letters are only relevant within the table. See below for an example:

Note: "Published or unpublished data from another source require a copyright attribution and permission to directly reproduce. Data that have been reconfigured or reanalyzed to produced different numbers do not require permission or a copyright attribution; cite these data with a regular author-date citation instead" (American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 385), which is the approach shown above.


American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).